Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston: Charleston) is the state's oldest port city in southeastern South Carolina. Charleston County County County County County Office, the largest city in the county. Borrows Berkeley. Charleston is located just south of the midpoint of the South Carolina coast. It is at the mouth of the Ashley and Cooper rivers. The port of Charleston is between the central town and the Atlantic Ocean. It was built on the west bank of the Ashley River in 1670 as Charlestown (Charlestown or Charles Towne), named after Charles II, King of England, and was moved to its current location (Oyster Point) in 1680. The current city name was adopted in 1783.
Historic Streets of Charleston
|Nickname: The Holy City (The Holy City), or the Carolus (Carolopolis), Chuck Town (Chucktown), Charlie O (Charlie-O)|
|Slogan: "Aedes Mores Juraque Curat"|
Places in Charleston City in South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
|Coordinates: 32 degrees 47 minutes 00 seconds north latitude and 79 degrees 56 minutes 00 seconds west longitude / 32.78333 degrees north latitude and 79.93333 degrees west longitude / 32.783333 degrees; -79.93333|
|region||376.5 km2 (178.1 mi2)|
|land||361.2 km2 (147.0 mi2)|
|water surface||44.3 km2 (17.1 mi2)|
|water area ratio||15%|
|Elevation||4 m (20 ft)|
|population||(as of 2010)|
|population density||332.5 people/km2 (816.9 people/mi2)|
|equal time||Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5)|
|daylight saving time||Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4)|
|Official website: Charleston|
Charleston was the fifth city in North America as of 1690. Other big cities are cities such as Philadelphia, New York, Boston and Quebec. It ranked tenth among the United States of America even at the time of the census in 1840. According to a 2010 census, the population was 120,083, a little less than the capital of Colombia in South Carolina, second down. As a result of the recent trend, it has become a fast growing city in the state. The population of the metropolitan area, including Charleston and North Charleston, is 664,607, and the population of the urban area is second in the state. Nearly 80% of the population lives in the city and its urban area.
It is also known as the Holy City (The Holy City). This is because there is a famous church that forms a low-rise urban landscape, and many of its spires are skylines. It is also based on the fact that it was one of the few cities among the 13 colonies that at first admitted tolerance for religion, even though it was limited to non-Catholics. Many Huguenot started for Charleston. Additionally, Charleston was an early colonial city that allowed the Jews to practice their faith (Judaism) without any restrictions. Kahal Caddosh Beth Elokhim, established in 1749, is the fourth oldest Jewish meeting place in the United States of America. Bliss Sholom Beth Israel, the oldest orthodox Jewish synagogue in the southern United States, was built by Ashkenazim (German and Central European Jews) in the mid-19th century.
In 1995, Marjabel Young Stewart, a specialist in etiquette and a publishing company, selected Charleston as the most well-mannered city in the United States. This is due to the fact that there is the first resident court (en:Livability Court) in the country.
Charles II (1630-1685), the King of England, came back to the throne after Oliver CROMWELL was a Gokokukyo (Protector of the Great Lord), and in 1663, he recognized the Carolina territory as a privileged territory by eight faithful friends called the Colonial Lord (Lords Proprietor). It took seven years for the colonial landlord to prepare for settlement, and the first land was Charlestown. In 1670, British colonies were built on the west bank of the Ashley River and a few miles northwest of the present city. It was chosen by Antony Ashley-Cooper (the first Count Shaftsbury), one of the colonial lords, as a "great port town." By 1680, the number of immigrants from England, Barbados and Virginia increased and they moved to their present location on the peninsula. As the capital of the Carolina colony, Charleston became the center of the future development and was the southernmost colony of the British colony in the late 16th century.
The colonists were often exposed to sea and land attacks. In addition to the intermittent attacks of Spain and France, which insisted on England's territorial rights, there were Indian resistance and pirates. A protective wall was built around the small settlement for defense. Two buildings of the time remain. One is the powder magazine (the Powder Magazine) that stores gunpowder, and the other is the pink house (Pink House) in the bar.
In 1680, the so-called grand model of 'an accurate and regular town model' was planned for the growth of a future town. It was set up for the public plaza near the intersection of Shusho-dori and Broad-dori. This place has been called 'Hono Yotsugaku' for a long time. In other words, various agencies in the government and religious law managed the town where the square was grown. St. Michael Episcopal Church, the oldest and most famous church in Charleston, was built in the southwest corner in 1752. The next year, a Colonial Assembly Hall was built across the Square. The remarkable place and elegant architecture of the city impressed citizens and visitors with the importance of the British colony. The District Court was on the first floor, the House of Representatives and the General Council of Governors on the second floor.
diversification of ethnic and religious groups
Early pioneers came mainly from England, but Charleston, a colonial period, had a mixture of ethnic and religious origin. During the colonial period, Boston and its sister cities were established, and some wealthy citizens spent summer in Boston and winter in Charleston. Trade with Bermuda and the Caribbean was also active, and some people moved from these areas. The French, Scots, Irish, and Germans were immigrants to the developing Seaport City, where many Protestant believers, Catholics, and Jews were present. Many Spanish-Jewish immigrants migrated to Japan, forming the largest and richest Jewish society in North America from the early 19th century to around 1830. Built in 1762, the Kamming Street Cemetery is a proof of their long-term existence. The first Church of England, the Church of St. Phillips Episcopal, was built in 1682 but was burned down in a fire and moved to its current location. Slaves were also a large part of the population, but they were active in the religious community in the city. The Association of the Emmanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, founded in 1791, derived from a religious group composed exclusively of free and slave African Americans, while the Free Black citizens and slaves contributed to the establishment of the Old Bessel Joint Methodist Church in 1797. The church is the oldest African Methodist Episcopal church in the south and the second oldest in the whole United States. The first museum in the United States was opened on January 12, 1773.
From the middle of the 18th century, a large number of immigrants entered the interior of Carolina. Some settled via Charleston, others from northern Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The population of the inland area exceeded that of the coastal area. These people were not refined in many ways, and they looked at as people of different interest, which led to friction between the people of the inland and the elite of Charleston over many generations.
major port of the Atlantic Ocean
By the middle of the 18th century, Charleston became a vibrant trade center. It became a transit point for Atlantic trade to the southern colonies, and became the largest city in the south of Philadelphia. In 1770, it was the fourth largest port after Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The population was 11,000, and over half of them were slaves.
Charleston was also a relay point for the Deerskin trade. Actually, the trade between deer skin became the basis of the early Charleston economy. The alliance with the Cherokee and the Creek Indians promised a secure supply of deer skin. Between 1699 and 1715, an average of 54,000 deer skins was killed from 500,000 to 1,250,000 deer in the period from 1739 to 1761, when the peak of the deer skin trade was exported from Charleston to Europe every year. There is a record that 5,239,350 pounds (2,360,000 kg) of deerskin was exported from Charleston at the same time. The deerskin was a popular male fashion and was used for practical riding backskin pantalons, gloves and book backcovers.
Rice and indigo were cultivated and succeeded by farmers who owned slaves near the coast. These crops and marine giant pine materials were exported for the shipbuilding industry, which produced great profits. At that time, Charleston was the center of culture and economy in the South.
As Charleston grew up, cultural and social opportunities, especially privileged merchants and farmers, increased. In 1736, the first theater was built in America. The building became the Planters Hotel in the 19th century, and a wealthy farmer stayed in the horse racing season. Charities were formed by several ethnic groups. The South Carolina Association was founded by Huguenot, France, the German Association of Friends in 1766, and the Hibernian Association was founded by Irish immigrants in 1801. In 1748, the Charleston Library Association was established by wealthy citizens who wished to follow the scientific and philosophical issues of the time. The organization also contributed to the establishment of the Charleston University, the oldest university in South Carolina in 1770 and the 13th largest university in the United States.
When the relations between colonists and Britain worsened, Charleston became the focus of the subsequent revolution. In 1773, the people of Charleston confiscated the tea and stored it in trading posts and customs in protest against the Tea Act of 1773, which embodies the concept of 'no taxation without representation.' In 1774, they gathered at a trading post to select representatives to send to the Continental Congress from all the colonies. The representative was responsible for drafting the Declaration of Independence. South Carolina declared his independence from England on the Trading Post stairs. Soon the church spire, especially the spire of the St. Michael's, was made a target for the English battleship, and the Independent army painted the spire black, as if it had melted into the night sky.
Charleston was the target of two attacks by the British army before and after. In either case, the British military strategy was based on the assumption that the royalists, who pledged their allegiance to the King of England, would support the British military. On June 28, 1776, General Clinton attempted to capture Charleston (the Battle of Sullivan), leading 2,000 soldiers and naval troops. At this time, the royalists in South Carolina were hoping to rise together. This was a view of the war being rather lenient, and the Navy was defeated by the Great Army, especially the Second Regiment of South Carolina of Fort Moortley, under the command of William Moortley, and failed. The shell of the vessel was not yet complete, but could not penetrate the thick pine wall of the fort. Furthermore, the local royalists did not attack the town from behind against the expectations of the British army. The organizational power of the royalists was weak and it did not work. Still, until 1780, a high-ranking London official, who had been beaten up by the refugees of the royalists, was convinced that it would be the time to rise up.
In February 1779, Clinton came again with 14,000 troops. General Benjamin Lincoln of the Great Army was trapped and all 5,400 soldiers surrendered. In the War of Independence, it was the biggest defeat in the Great Army. The Continental soldiers who escaped capture joined the Militia led by Francis Marion and Andrew Pickens, who were called "Fox of the Marsh." Clinton returned to New York with 8,000 soldiers under General Cornwallis. Cornwallis brought together the royalists, built forts within the colony, and made them pledge their solidarity with the King of England. The British army ruled Charleston City until 1782. After the British army left, the city was officially renamed Charleston in 1783.
Until 1788, Carolina met the Capitol for the Constitutional Ratification Council. While the government's support was met by the White House, it was split in the debate to choose the capital of the new state. A suspicious fire broke out in the assembly hall during the meeting, and then the delegation moved to a trading post to declare Colombia to be the new capital. In 1792, the Capitol was rebuilt and became the Charleston County Building. At its completion, the city owned all the public buildings needed to be converted from the colonial capital to the center of the south. The many dignified buildings built in the next century reflect the optimism, pride and the fate of the citizens that many Charleston citizens feel in their society.
Although Charleston ceded the capital to Colombia, he saw the prosperity of the economy based on plantations after the war. Cotton Jin's invention in 1793 innovated the production method of cotton, and cotton became a major export of South Carolina. Cotton plantations were heavily dependent on slave labor. Slaves were the main labor force in the city, and they worked as housekeepers, workmen, market workers, or workmen. Many black people combined African, French, German, English, Bahamian and Dutch words in the linguistic structure used by African-American people and spoke Gala, a dialect with an African structure. In 1807, the Charleston market was established. It soon became the center of the African-American community, and many shops with slaves and free-colored personalities stood side by side.
In 1820, Charleston had a population of 23,000, but the black population was the majority. In 1822, a rebellion of large slaves, planned by Danish Beesey, a Free Black, was revealed, and the excitement among white people in Charleston and Carolina severely limited the activities of Free Black and slaves. Hundreds of free black people, slaves and white supporters were involved in the insurrection plan, and all were put in jail. This led to the creation of a new state arsenal in Charleston. A recent study by Michael P. Johnson, a historian at Johns Hopkins University, raises doubts about the accuracy of Biesy's intended testimony of the revolt of slaves.
As Charleston's administration, society and industry grew, commercial facilities were built to support community aspirations. The South Carolina Bank, the second oldest building in a U.S. bank, was founded in 1798. Branches of the First Bank and the Second Bank of the United States were established in 1800 and 1817 respectively. The building of the First Bank of the United States of America became the city hall in 1818, but the branch office of the Second Bank became the vitality of the community and became the only bank that could handle the exchange rate required for international trade. In 1840, the market and warehouse where fresh meat is produced and handled every day became the commercial center of the city. Slave trade was also dependent on the port of Charleston, and slaves dropped from the ship were also bought and sold.
political change before the Civil War
In the first half of the 19th century, South Carolina was embedded with the idea that "state power" would overpower the federal government. Buildings like marine hospitals have sparked controversy and the federal government should be involved in the government, society and economy of South Carolina. More than 90% of the federal government's revenue budget during this period was a tariff on imported goods, and customs were collected in Charleston. In 1832, the South Carolina Parliament passed an annulment decree that the state would invalidate federal laws against the tariff law that came into effect at that time. Soon a federal soldier was sent to the fort in Charleston, and began to collect tariffs with the army (the danger of invalidating). At that time, a compromise was reached that tariffs would gradually be reduced, but discussions on state authority continued to rise in the next few decades. Charleston was still the most prosperous port in the region. In 1849, the construction of a new and larger government custom house started, but was interrupted by the Civil War.
A Democratic Party meeting was held in Charleston before the 1860 presidential election. The Havernian Hall became the headquarters of the deputies who supported Steven Douglas. Douglas was expected to bridge the northern and southern parts of the expanded slavery issue. At the meeting, all the candidates broke up without gaining a majority of two-thirds of support. The discord has ripped the Democratic Party and Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, is chosen.
Civil War and Reconstruction
On December 20, 1860, after Abraham Lincoln was elected president, the South Carolina State Council decided to be the first to leave the Commonwealth. One of the causes of this argument was that those who had hostile opinions and purposes to slavery had decided the outcome of the presidential election, and there were many other causes.
The first firearm of the Civil War was on 9 January 1861, when a cadet of the Castadel Military Academy fired a bullet at the Federal Ship Star of West (Star of the West), who entered the Charleston Port. On April 12, a coastal gun battery led by General Pierre G.T. Boligard attacked the Sumter Fortress in the port under the control of the Commonwealth. After a 34-hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson, surrendered to the fort. Officers and cadet at the Military Academy were assigned to various United States Army Artillery Posts during the bombardment of Fort Sumter. The Military Academy continued its operation as a school during the Civil War, but the candidates became a part of the military division of South Carolina along with the candidates for officers from the Arsenal Military Academy in Colombia, and formed the State Cadet Battalion. The candidates for officers at both schools continued to support the Allied Forces by training new soldiers, manufacturing bullets, storing protective equipment, and guarding federal prisoners. In December 1864, he was ordered to join the Allied Forces at Talifini Creek and fought against the troops of General W.T. Sherman of the Northern Army, who was advancing, and eight of them died in battle. Charleston City was besieged by the Northern Army, but the Samter Fortress continued to rule, and this was the base of the blockhouse runners. On February 17, 1864, the submarine H. L. Hanley's night attack on the Northern Army's USS Housatonic was the first successful submarine attack. In 1865, the Northern Army entered the city and occupied many places. For example, it was a United States arsenal that the Southern Army occupied when the war broke out. The Department of War also seized the grounds and buildings of the Citadel Academy. This area was returned to the state in 1882 under the direction of Lawrence E. Marichak, and was used as a military post for 17 years until it was reestablished as a military academy.
When the Southern Army finally lost, the Federal Army was stationed in Charleston, the city's reconstruction period. The war destroyed the prosperity of the prewar city. The released slaves faced poverty and racism. The manufacturing industry slowly recovered, and the residents returned to life to create a new life, and the population increased. As the city's economy improved, citizens worked to revive public institutions. In 1867, the first secondary school for black people was established in Charleston. It's at Abery. General Sherman helped convert the United States arsenal to the Porter Military Academy. Here, they were educated for the orphans and poor boys of former soldiers and war. The Porter Military Academy later merged with the Gold School, and now it is a preparatory school from well known kindergarten students to 12 years old. William Enston Holmes, a nursing home for the elderly bedridden, was built in 1889. J. Taylor Parson, a liberation slave, designed the house and, several years later, gave it up peacefully as a maintenance manager after the rebuilding. The United States Post Office and the court were completed in 1896 and became a symbol of the new life in the city center.
In 1886, many buildings were destroyed in the earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5. The earthquake was felt in Boston far north, Chicago and Milwaukee far north, New Orleans west, Cuba far south and Bermuda far east. The damaged buildings amounted to 2,000 buildings and the cost amounted to six million dollars. The value of the buildings in all cities at that time was about $24 million.
Many historic buildings remain intact today after many fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, several wars and the renewal of the 20th century's urban area.
For decades in the 20th century, Charleston had been economically weak, but his large army had been stationed to support the local economy. The 1969 Charleston Hospital Strike was the last major event in the civil rights movement, and celebrities such as Ralph Abernessee, Coletta Scott King and Andrew Young marched with their local Mary Moultree. This story is written in Tom Dent's book "Nambu no Tabi" (Travel to the South). The present mayor, Joseph P. Riley Jr, was elected in 1975 and the present Renaissance started. Riley continues to be Charleston's primary advocate of reclaiming Charleston's economic and cultural heritage. In the last 30 years of the 20th century, there were new investments in the city, and many improvements and involvement in the preservation of history by the city. The move has not been delayed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989 and is still ongoing.
In Hurricane Hugo in 1989, the damage from nearby McClellanville was the worst, but three-quarters of the buildings in the historic district of Charleston were also damaged. The damage from the hurricane amounted to $2.8 billion. The city of Charleston can recover quite quickly after the hurricane, and its population has grown to 126,567 on an estimated 2008.
In 1993, a battalion of the C-17 Globe Master III transport plane was built at the Charleston Air Base for the first time in the world.
In 2004, in place of the South Carolina Medical University, the SPAWAR United States Navy Space Maritime System Command Station became the largest employer in the Charleston urban area.
Charleston is the location of the General Communications Outpatient Pharmacy (en:Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP)). This is where the Office of the Veterans Affairs takes the lead, computers are used at strategic points across the United States, and the prescription is handled by email to the veterans.
Geography and climate
Charleston is located at 32 degrees 78 minutes 00 seconds north latitude and 79 degrees 93 minutes 00 seconds west longitude.
According to the National Census Bureau, the total area is 347.5 km2 (147.1 mi2), the land area is 251.2 km 2 (97.0 mi2), and the water area is 44.3 km 2 (17.1 mi2). It is 15% of the water area. The old city is on the peninsula, and the people say it is 'a place where the Ashley and Cooper rivers join together to make the Atlantic Ocean.' The entire peninsula is low in altitude and some areas have been reclaimed. Heavy rain, high waves and unusual high tide often caused floods. The city border extends from the peninsula along the Ashley River and includes most of West Ashley and parts of James Island and John's Island. Along the Cooper River, it includes Danielle and Cainhoy. North of the peninsula is North Charleston, and east of the Cooper River is Mount Pleasant.
The tidal rivers (One Do, Cooper, Stno, and Ashley) are evidence of the seashore. In other words, the original river had a low riverbed and the land changed because the ocean rose or the land sank. At the entrance of Charleston Port there is the delta of the sedimented river, deep and suitable for the port. The rise of the ocean is thought to have been due to the melting of the glaciers at the end of the glacial period.
Charleston is in a warm wet climate (Cfa in the Keppeng Climate Division), and while in winter it is warm and humid in summer, it has rain there all year round. In summer, it is a rainy season, and most of the annual rainfall is recorded during the summer due to heavy thunderstorms. Autumn is relatively warm until November. The winter is short and mild, and it is characterized by occasional rains. Although it rarely snows, 3.4 inches (8.6 cm) of snow fell on February 12, 2010, which was the first time in twenty years. The record low temperature was 104 degrees F (40 degrees F) (observed at Customs on East Bay Street) on June 2, 1985, and the lowest temperature in the past was 10 degrees F (-12°C) on January 21, 1985. Every summer and early autumn, hurricanes are a major threat and have experienced numerous intense hurricanes, including Hurricane Hugo in 1989.
In 1761, a large tornado broke out and temporarily made the Ashley River dry and sank five ships on the coast.
|Climate of Charleston|
|Mean maximum temperature°C (°F)||13.9 |
|Mean Minimum Temperature °C (°F)||5.8 |
|Precipitation mm (inch)||91.9 |
|average number of days of precipitation||10.1||8.0||8.5||7.0||7.6||10.6||11.4||11.9||9.7||6.1||7.0||9.0||106.9|
|average monthly daylight time||179.8||189.3||244.9||276.0||294.5||279.0||288.3||257.3||219.0||223.2||189.0||170.5||2,810.8|
|Source: NOAA , HKO 2010-06-09|
The Charleston-North Charleston Somerville metropolitan area comprises four counties, Charleston County, Berkeley County, Dochester County and Coleton County. Estimated in 2005, the population of the urban area was 634,568. Charleston has several large suburban cities. North Charleston has a population comparable to Charleston, and is the third largest city in the state. Mount Pleasant and Summerville are the second cities. These cities and the areas around Charleston that have been incorporated or not yet integrated into the urban area of Charleston North Charleston, were combined to form the urban area of Charleston North Charleston, with the population of 423,410 as of 2000. The population is slightly larger than the Columbia Metropolitan Area, and the Charleston North Charleston Summerville Metropolitan Area is the number one urban area in the state. The urban area also includes a very small city called Monx Corner, Berkeley County.
Until the reconstruction, it was a traditional parish system, and after that it became a county system. Nevertheless, the system of diocese continued to exist to some extent, and is mainly used as a public works district. The Old City of Charleston was originally a parish of St. Philipp & St. Michael. Even today, there are St. James, St. George, St. Andrews, and St. John's parish, and the latter two are still mostly country-integrated parishes.
Cities and towns in the Charleston Metropolitan Area
Other unincorporated areas
- John's Island
- Edith Island
The race and ethnic composition is 70.2% white, 25.4% African-American, 1.6% Asian-American and 2.9% Hispanic.
Charleston takes the form of a strong mayor and a municipal committee, and the mayor acts as the main manager and administrative officer of the city government. The mayor presides over the city's political committee and has voting rights equal to those of its members. The committee consists of 12 members selected from 12 constituencies in the city.
The Charleston City Fire Department has 10 companies, 237 fire fighters scattered around the city.
Charleston City Police Station has 382 police officers, 137 civilians and 27 spare police officers, the state's largest police organization. The procedures to control drug use and gang violence are used as models in other cities. According to the 2005 FBI Criminal Report, the crime rate in Charleston is almost every category worse than the national average.
emergency medical care and hospital
The emergency medical services in Charleston City are provided by Charleston County emergency medical services and Berkeley County emergency medical services.
Charleston is a medical center in the eastern part of the state. In the central area, there are general hospitals called South Carolina Medical University Hospital, Ralph H. Johnson Hospital and Loper Hospital. The South Carolina Medical University is the first and largest medical school in the state, and it is the sixth oldest university to continue in the United States. In the heart of the town's medical district, biotechnology and medical research are growing rapidly with the expansion of major hospitals. In addition, an expansion plan is under way in general hospitals, such as Bon Sequor-St. Francis Xavier Hospital, Trident Hospital and East Cooper Regional Hospital, located in other parts of the city and urban area.
The table below shows Charleston's crime rate in contrast with the national average in six crime categories Morgan Quitnot uses to calculate the "Most Dangerous City in the United States" ranking. This statistic is not shown in actual incidents, but in incidents per 100,000 people.
|crime||Charleston (2007)||national average|
Charleston's crime rate has decreased as a whole since 1999. As of 1999, the number of crimes per 100,000 population was 597.1. The national average is 320.9. Charleston's crime index fell to 430.9 in 2007.
According to the 2008 Metropolitan Area Crime Rate ranking of the Federal Assembly's Quarry Press, Charleston was the 124th most dangerous city among more than 75,000. However, it is still worse than the 21st in the entire Charleston-North Charleston metropolitan area.
Charleston Church shooting
On June 17, 2015, a shooting incident occurred in a church in the city, and one of them was injured and nine people were killed.
infrastructure and economy
economic district and major employers
Today's Charleston is a well known sightseeing spot with numerous luxury hotels, chain hotels, inns and breakfast accommodations, as well as restaurants and luxury goods stores that have won many awards. It is famous for its streets with rows of rib oaks covered with Spanish moss and its savar palms, the state trees of South Carolina, all over the place. There are many beautiful, historic pastel-colored houses in the area near the water called Rainbow Row. Charleston is still an important port and is the second and fourth container port on the East Coast of the United States and in North America. It is also an important location for information technology and companies, with companies such as Blackbow, Moderant, CSS and Benefit Focus.
Charleston is also important in the field of art, and in the American style of magazines, he is listed as one of the 25 most outstanding figures in the art.
Charleston's economy depends mainly on the prosperous ports and tourism. The headquarters of many large companies is also located here.
- Amoko en:Amoco - Logistics Center
- Blackboard en:Blackbaud - Headquarters
- Robert Bosch-Factory
- First Bank of Carolina - Charleston Branch
- Hess-Logistics Center
- Newcore - Factory
- Verizon Wireless - Southeast Headquarters
- Vault Aircraft Industries - Dreamliner's Assembly Plant
- center point
- Citadel Mall
- Downtown Shopping District - includes King Street and Meeting Street
- Mount Pleasant Town Center Suburban Mall
- North Woods Mall
- Tanger Outlet Mall
- The Market
- Charleston Place store
major department store
- Berg - Four
- Dealers - Two
- JC Penny - Two Stores
- Saxe Fifth Avenue
- Sears - Three
Charleston is the most popular passenger airport in South Carolina, with Charleston International Airport (en:Charleston International Airport) available. It shares a runway with the neighboring Charleston Air Force Base and is located in the central city of North Charleston.
Interstate Expressway Route 26 enters from the northwestern part of the city and connects the airport, interstate Expressway Route 95 and Colombia. Route 26 ends at the central town of Sepetima Clark Express Way, from which it crosses two-thirds of the peninsula and enters the Arthur Rabenel Jr. bridge. The bridge and Septima Clark Express Way are part of U.S. National Route 17 and run east to west through Charleston City and Mount Pleasant. Interstate Expressway Route 526, also known as Mark Clark Express Way, runs in a semicircle around the city. National Route 52 of the United States is Meeting Street, and its branch is East Bay Street, and when you leave the East Side, you'll change to Morrison Drive. The road merges with King Street in the neck (industrial) region of the city to become Rivers Avenue. National Route 78 is King Street in the center of the city and merges with Meeting Street to become Rivers Avenue.
- U.S. National Route 17
- U.S. National Route 52
- National Route 52 Branch
- United States National Route 78
- Interstate Expressway Route 26, East end in Charleston
- Interstate 526
- Interstate Highway 526
- Route 7 - Sam Rittenberg Boulevard
- Route 30 - James Island Express Way
- Route 61 - St. Andrew's Boulevard/Ashley River Road
- State Route 1717 - Old Town Road/Folly Road
- Route 700 - Maybank Highway
Arthur Rabenel Jr.
The Arthur Rabenel Jr. Bridge over the Cooper River opened on July 16, 2005, and became the longest Shari-bashi Bridge in the Americas. The bridge connects Mt. Pleasant with Charleston's central town, and has eight lanes and 12 feet (3.6 meters) of pedestrian and bicycle lanes. It replaced the Grace Bridge built in 1929 and the Silas N. Pearman Bridge built in 1966. These old bridges were considered dangerous even in the United States, so they were dismantled after the opening of the new bridge.
Charleston Community Transportation Corporation
In the city, buses operated by the Charleston Community Transportation Corporation are available. Most of the city's inner-city areas have regular flights, and as part of the Rack and Ride system, buses are equipped with racks that spin bicycles. The bus connects the historic center of the city with its famous scenic spots, and a trolley bus that runs through the center of the city receives a telephone call to pick up people with physical disabilities at the sidewalks.
In the rural areas of the city and urban areas, another bus service operated by the Berkeley Charleston Dorchester Dentotraffic Management Association is available. This is usually called the Tri-County link.
There are five terminals in the port. Three are in the harbor, and the other two are in the North Cooper River at Charleston. The port was ranked number one in North America for customer satisfaction by a supply chain executive. As a source of income for Charleston, the port is ranked second after tourism. The Union Pier Terminal also has a cruise ship passenger terminal, where many cruise ships arrive and depart every year. In May 2010, the fantasy on the Carnival Cruise Line decided to leave Charleston as its home port and offers a weekly cruise to the Bahamas, the Key West and even Bermuda. Mercury from the Celebrity Cruz Line also leaves Charleston several times a year. At the Union Peer Terminal, there are 67 ports in 2010, in addition to weekly fantasies.
- Columbus Street Terminal
- North Charleston Terminal, North Charleston
- Union Peer Terminal
- in North Charleston, Veterans' Terminal
- in Mount Pleasant Terminal
- A new terminal is under construction as demand for the port is increasing. It is located at a former naval shipyard in North Charleston City.
Charleston's distinctive dialects (which is disappearing) have been attracting attention for a long time in the south and other parts of the country because of their single properties. Among the many Southern dialects, Charleston is the only one who traditionally makes a half-vowel at the middle of the long note, and in certain environments, raises the ending of /ay/ or /aw/ and does not pronounce "r". Some people believe that this characteristic of the Charleston dialect is attributed to the early immigrants, Huguenot and Spanish Jews. Both played a major role in Charleston's development and history. However, given the high concentration of African-American Americans who speak the Gala language, the language pattern can be thought to have been influenced by the dialect of African-American society of Gara.
Even today, Gala language and dialects are spoken among African Americans in the land. However, because of the rapid development of the region, its characteristics are slowly disappearing especially in the peripheral island area.
The early dialects of Charleston were illuminated by Sylvester Primer's Charleston Provincialisms and the "Charleston's Element of Huguenot in Charleston's Regionality The Huguenot Element in Charleston's Provincialisms. The Spanish-Jewish influence on Charleston's language patterns must be checked in the future.
Charleston has been noted for his many churches and sects. In the United States, there is the headquarters of the seventh oldest parish, the Roman Catholic Church, Charleston. John England, a famous priest and Doctor of Theology, was the first Catholic priest in the city. It is also home to the Episcopal Church of South Carolina. There is one of the Huguenot churches that only have two left in America. This is still the only one that belongs to the Protestant denomination. There are many well known churches, cathedrals and synagogues in the city. One of the reasons for the city's nickname, "Holy City," is that the church's steeple forms the skyline of the city. Charleston was historically the most religiously tolerant city in the New World. Recently, the Church of South Carolina, a Charleston-based Episcopal Church, has played an important role in the movement to divide the Church of England. There is the only African American Seventh Day Baptist Church in the city in the United States and Canada, the Seventh Day Baptist Bureau. Charleston's First Baptist Church (built in 1682) is the oldest Baptist Church in the south and the only one remaining in the south. It is also used in schools from kindergarten students to twelfth grade.
There are many historic Jewish residents in Charleston. The United States branch of the Reform Jewish Movement was established in Cahar Cados Beth Elokhim, a synagogue in Charleston. In the United States of America, it is the fourth oldest Jewish church after New York, Newport and Savannah.
Annual cultural events and festivals
Charleston hosts the Spoleto Festival every year. This is a 17-day art festival in which over 100 works by artists from various fields are exhibited. There are also Cooper Kawabashi Running Competition and MOJA Art Festival. MOJA Art Festival is a two-week celebration of the art, music and culture of African americans and Caribbean countries.
Museums and historical landmarks
As an old colony city, Charleston has a variety of museums and historical landmarks.
- Trading Post and Customs: Constructed in 1767. There was a dungeon that concealed the signer of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, and in 1791, he held an event for George Washington, and in 1788 ratified the Constitution of the United States of America. It is run as a museum by independent American daughters.
- Powder magazine: Constructed in 1713, the museum is now the oldest existing public building in South Carolina.
- The Ghibs Art Museum: Opened in 1905 and collects works by Charleston or South American artists.
- Fire-proof architecture: A membership-based reference library is open to the public, with the South Carolina State Historical Association.
- Nathaniel Russell's House: A Federal House, owned by the Historic Charleston Foundation, and opened to the public as a House Museum.
- The house of Governor William Akken: Also known as the house of Eiken Lett, built for William Aken Jr. in 1820.
- Charleston Museum: Established in 1773, the first museum in the United States
- House of Haywood Washington: Run by the historic Museum of Houses, Charleston Museum, built in the late 18th century and houses furniture made in Charleston.
- House of Joseph Mangolt: Operated by the historic Charleston Museum, The Museum of Houses, designed by Gabriel Mangolt and is important in Adam style architecture.
- Market Hall and Barn: It is also simply called a market, and it spreads to a few blocks behind 188 meeting streets. It was constructed in the 1830s and houses the Southern Army Museum. The barn houses some permanent stores, but it is mainly used by street vendors.
- Fort Moultree: Where the Civil War started
- Samter Fortress: A stone fortress located in a port. The place where the Battle of Samter Fortress, which was the beginning of the Civil War, was covered.
The local daily paper is The Post and Courier (en:The Post and Courier). There are also Charleston City Paper (en:Charleston City Paper) and the Charleston Regional Business Journal (en:The Charleston Regional Business Journal). In the monthly magazine, "Charleston" introduces the cultural life of the city and surrounding areas. It is also the headquarters of the website The Charleston Crystal Ball. The site shows live videos of music venues, community footage and local Foley Coast.
There are many regional TV and radio stations in Charleston.
- en:WCBD-TV 2 (NBC series) (CW)
- en:WCIV-TV 4 (ABC series)
- en:WCSC-TV 5 (CBS series)
- en:WITV-TV 7
- WJRB-TV 18 (TeleFutura)
- WAZS-TV 22 (Azteca America)
- en:WTAT-TV 24
- en:WMMP-TV 36 (MyTV)
- WJNI-TV 42 (America One)
- WCHD-TV 49
- 1640 XSUR - 70s & 80s ("Surfside 1640")
- Charleston College Radio COFC RADIO
- List of radio stations in Charleston en:List of radio stations in Charleston
- Soccer: Charleston Battery, USL Professional League member, playing at Blackbo Stadium on Daniel Island
- Baseball: Charleston Riverdogs en:Charleston RiverDogs, Minor League South Atlantic League member, New York Yankees member, Joseph P. Riley Jr. Park
- Rugby: It has performed well in the Charleston Outrose RFC, the Rugby Union team established in 1973, the Palmetto Rugby Union, the USA Rugby South and the USARFU. On the weekend of Memorial Day, seven-person rugby championship is held.
- Ice hockey: South Carolina Stigrays, East Coast Hockey League affiliate, NHL's Washington Capitals subsidiary since 2004, North Charleston-based play in North Charleston Coliseum
Other well known sports venues include Johnson Haygood Stadium (home of the American football team in Citadel Bulldogs) and the Carolina First Center at Charleston College. The Carolina First Center holds 5,700 people and is used by school basketball and volleyball teams.
Charleston in the media
- Charleston en:List of television shows and movies in Charleston, South Carolina in TV and movies
Charleston has a historic landscape in the south, and is popular not only as a place set in Charleston but also as a place for filming movies and TV. In addition, many novels and plays, such as the following, have also been set.
- Gala Opera "Poggy and Beth" (en:Porgy and Bess)
- Clive Barker's novel "Galerie" (Galilee)
- Joseph Humphrey's novel "Rich in Love" (Rich in Love)
- Rafael Sabatini's novel "The People of Carolina" (The Carolinian),
- The novel "Scarlet" by Alexandra Ripley (a sequel to "Gone With the Wind" by Margaret Mitchell) was a bestseller in 1991. Ripley actually got an idea from Charleston City in his novel, "Charleston," and a sequel, "Leave Charleston."
- several books by Citadel graduate and novelist Pat Conroy
- Another historical novel, "Timeline 191," by Harry Turdove, in which the Southern Army wins the Civil War
- In 2004, the movie "Notebook," starring Rachel McAdams and Ryan Gosling, while the American Theater on King Street was the first date Ali and Noah had.
- List of schools in Charleston: en:List of schools in Charleston, South Carolina
Public education is run by the Charleston County School District, since most of Charleston City belongs to Charleston County. However, part of the northern area is managed by Berkeley County School District.
In addition to many religious private schools, there is an academic magnet school, which is ranked number one in the United States.
The higher education facilities include Charleston College (the 13th oldest university in Japan) and Sitadel Academy. Charleston Southern University is a private university of the Southern Baptist Federation. There are also Charleston Law School of Law and Medical School of South Carolina. The Loper Hospital Nursing School, Trident College of Technology and the Webster University branch are also in the city. You can get a degree from a public university in South Carolina at the Low Country Granite Center in Charleston. In addition, the American College of Architecture, the only college in Japan to be granted the Bachelor of Architecture degree, is located in the city. A recently established school is the Charleston School of Art, located on North Market Street in the central city.
Charleston is a peninsula surrounded by many islands and islands and constitutes the Charleston urban area. Charleston City includes the main part of the peninsula, West Ashley and East Cooper.
an area within a peninsula
- County Hall Square Court House Square
- free square
- Marion Square Marion Square
- market square
- Washington Square Washington Square
- Charleston Air Force Base en:Charleston Air Force Base
- Charleston Camp
- Charleston Naval Base Charleston Navy Base - (Arsenal and Naval Prison): There is a hospital at a former shipyard in North Charleston City.
- Charleston Arsenal - North Charleston
Charleston connects sister cities with one foreign and one domestic city.
- Italy, Umbria, Sport
- Savannah, GA
- ^ "Charleston Time Line". Archived from original as of July 12, 2001. Read on July 9, 2007.
- ^ Table 7. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1840. U.S. Bureau of the Census. June 15, 1998.
- ^ a b c American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. February 4, 2011.
- ^ "History of the Huguenot Society". Read 10-06-16.
- ^ "Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim". Read 10-06-16.
- ^ "Brith Sholom Beth Israel". Read 10-06-16.
- ^ 
- ^ "A 'portion of the People'," Archived December 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Harvard Magazine, January - February 2003. Retrieved June 11, 2007, Charleston, a Greek society that has a major impact, is mostly Greek Orthodox. The origin goes back to the fact that immigrants from Greece found work in their local manufacturing industry. Every year in Charleston, the Greek festival is held by the community.
- ^ "The Jews of South Carolina," NPR.org, March 25, 2002. Retrieved June 11, 2007.  
- ^ "Profile for Charleston, South Carolina". ePodunk. May 20, 2010:
- ^ 
- ^ Porter-Gaud School
- ^ 
- ^ US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau, (2011-02-12)Available April 23, 2011.
- ^ Maximum and minimum temperatures from Yahoo! Weather
- ^ Lane, F.W. The Elements Rage (David & Charles 1966), p. 49
- ^ "Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971?2000) (PDF)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Read on June 9, 2010.
- ^ "Climatological Normals of Charleston, South Carolina". Hong Kong Observatory. Read on June 9, 2010.
- ^ "Investigation examining Charleston firefighters' handling of deadly blaze," KSLA News 12. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
- ^ ""2005 FBI Crime Reports"". Charlestonsc.areaconnect.com. Read on February 25, 2009.
- ^ "Charleston, South Carolina (SC) Detailed Profile ? relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, move, moving, houses news, sex offenders". City-data.com. Read on February 25, 2009.
- ^ http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/CityCrime2008_Rank_Rev.pdf
- ^ "CQ Press: City Crime Rankings 2008". Os.cqpress.com. Read on February 25, 2009.
- ^ http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/MetroCrime2008_Rank_Rev.pdf
- ^ Archived Copies. Archived from original as of November 1, 2014. Read on September 17, 2014.
- ^ Charleston ranks #1 in Customer Service Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ http://travel.usatoday.com/cruises/legacy/item.aspx?type=blog&ak=93100.blog
- ^ http://www.port-of-charleston.com/cruises/calendar/cruisecalendar2010.asp
- ^ Sister cities designated by Sister Cities International.
- Charleston Celebrity en:List of famous people from Charleston, South Carolina
- Borick, Carl P. A Gallant Defense: The Siege of Charleston, 1780. U. of South Carolina Press, 2003. 332 pp.
- Bull, Kinloch, Jr. The Oligarchs in Colonial and Revolutionary Charleston: Lieutenant Governor William Bull II and His Family. U. of South Carolina Press, 1991. 415 pp.
- Clarke, Peter. A Free Church in a Free Society. The Ecclesiology of John England, Bishop of Charleston, 1820-1842, a Nineteenth Century Missionary Bishop in the Southern United States. Charleston, S.C.: Bagpipe, 1982. 561 pp.
- Coker, P. C., III. Charleston's Maritime Heritage, 1670-1865: An Illustrated History. Charleston, S.C.: Coker-Craft, 1987. 314 pp.
- Doyle, Don H. New Men, New Cities, New South: Atlanta, Nashville, Charleston, Mobile, 1860-1910. U. of North Carolina Press, 1990. 369 pp.
- Fraser, Walter J., Jr. Charleston! Charleston! The History of a Southern City. U. of South Carolina, 1990. 542 pp. the standard scholarly history
- Gillespie, Joanna Bowen. The Life and Times of Martha Laurens Ramsay, 1759-1811. U. of South Carolina Press, 2001. 315 pp.
- Hagy, James William. This Happy Land: The Jews of Colonial and Antebellum Charleston. U. of Alabama Press, 1993. 450 pp.
- Jaher, Frederic Cople. The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los Angeles. U. of Illinois Press, 1982. 777 pp.
- McInnis, Maurie D. The Politics of Taste in Antebellum Charleston. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005. 395 pp.
- Pease, William H. and Pease, Jane H. The Web of Progress: Private Values and Public Styles in Boston and Charleston, 1828-1843. Oxford U. Press, 1985. 352 pp.
- Pease, Jane H. and Pease, William H. A Family of Women: The Carolina Petigrus in Peace and War. U. of North Carolina Press, 1999. 328 pp.
- Pease, Jane H. and Pease, William H. Ladies, Women, and Wenches: Choice and Constraint in Antebellum Charleston and Boston. U. of North Carolina Press, 1990. 218 pp.
- Phelps, W. Chris. The Bombardment of Charleston, 1863-1865. Gretna, La.: Pelican, 2002. 175 pp.
- Rosen, Robert N. Confederate Charleston: An Illustrated History of the City and the People during the Civil War. U. of South Carolina Press, 1994. 181 pp.
- Rosen, Robert. A Short History of Charleston. University of South Carolina Press, (1997). ISBN 1-57003-197-5, scholarly survey
- Spence, E. Lee. Spence's Guide to South Carolina: diving, 639 shipwrecks (1520-1813), saltwater sport fishing, recreational shrimping, crabbing, oystering, clamming, saltwater aquarium, 136 campgrounds, 281 boat landings (Nelson Southern Printing, Sullivan's Island, S.C.: Spence, c1976) OCLC: 2846435
- Spence, E. Lee. Treasures of the Confederate Coast: the "real Rhett Butler" & Other Revelations (Narwhal Press, Charleston/Miami, c1995)[ISBN 1886391017] [ISBN 1886391009], OCLC: 32431590
Art, architecture, literature, science
- Cothran, James R. Gardens of Historic Charleston. U. of South Carolina Press, 1995. 177 pp.
- Greene, Harlan. Mr. Skylark: John Bennett and the Charleston Renaissance. U. of Georgia Press, 2001. 372 pp.
- Hutchisson, James M. and Greene, Harlan, ed. Renaissance in Charleston: Art and Life in the Carolina Low Country, 1900-1940. U. of Georgia Press, 2003. 259 pp.
- Hutchisson, James M. DuBose Heyward: A Charleston Gentleman and the World of Porgy and Bess. U. Press of Mississippi, 2000. 225 pp.
- McNeil, Jim. Charleston's Navy Yard: A Picture History. Charleston, S.C.: Coker Craft, 1985. 217 pp.
- O'Brien, Michael and Moltke-Hansen, David, ed. Intellectual Life in Antebellum Charleston. U. of Tennessee Press, 1986. 468 pp.
- Poston, Jonathan H. The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture. U. of South Carolina Press, 1997. 717 pp.
- Severens, Kenneth. Charleston: Antebellum Architecture and Civic Destiny. U. of Tennessee Press, 1988. 315 pp.
- Stephens, Lester D. Science, Race, and Religion in the American South: John Bachman and the Charleston Circle of Naturalists, 1815-1895. U. of North Carolina Press, 2000. 338 pp.
- Waddell, Gene. Charleston Architecture: 1670-1860. 2 vol. Charleston, S.C.: Wyrick, 2003. 992 pp.
- Weyeneth, Robert R. Historic Preservation for a Living City: Historic Charleston Foundation, 1947-1997. (Historic Charleston Foundation Studies in History and Culture series.) U. of South Carolina Press, 2000. 256 pp.
- Yuhl, Stephanie E. A Golden Haze of Memory: The Making of Historic Charleston. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005. 285 pp.
- Zola, Gary Phillip. Isaac Harby of Charleston, 1788-1828: Jewish Reformer and Intellectual. U. of Alabama Press, 1994. 284 pp.
- Susan Harbage Page and Juan Logan. "Prop Master at Charleston's Gibbes Museum of Art", Southern Spaces, 21 September 2009.
- Bellows, Barbara L. Benevolence among Slaveholders: Assisting the Poor in Charleston, 1670-1860. Louisiana State U. Press, 1993. 217 pp.
- Drago, Edmund L. Initiative, Paternalism, and Race Relations: Charleston's Avery Normal Institute. U. of Georgia Press, 1990. 402 pp.
- Egerton, Douglas R. He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey. Madison House, 1999. 248 pp. online review
- Greene, Harlan; Hutchins, Harry S., Jr.; and Hutchins, Brian E. Slave Badges and the Slave-Hire System in Charleston, South Carolina, 1783-1865. McFarland, 2004. 194 pp.
- Jenkins, Wilbert L. Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post-Civil War Charleston. Indiana U. Press, 1998. 256 pp.
- Johnson, Michael P. and Roark, James L. No Chariot Let Down: Charleston's Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War. U. of North Carolina Press, 1984. 174 pp.
- Kennedy, Cynthia M. Braided Relations, Entwined Lives: The Women of Charleston's Urban Slave Society. Indiana U. Press, 2005. 311 pp.
- Powers, Bernard E., Jr. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. U. of Arkansas Press, 1994. 377 pp.
- City of Charleston Official Website
- Charleston Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Charleston Airport
- The Charleston Crystal Ball: Live video feeds from Charleston, SC
- Charleston Metro Chamber Of Commerce
- Historic Charleston by the National Park Service
- Charleston, SC Insider's Guide
- Traveler of Charleston Visitors Guide
- Port of Charleston
- Charleston Pictures
- Seacoast Church (4 Locations in Charleston Metro)
- Charleston, South Carolina - DMOZ (English)
- Charleston Regional Development Alliance
- Strolling thru the City of Charleston
- Charleston Preservation of History